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Cologne has the country's highest density of pubs per capita. Historically, Cologne has always been an important trade city, with land, air, and sea connections.
Cologne-Bonn Airport is the second largest freight terminal in Germany. In Cologne had 4. Cologne shows a significant increase in startup companies , especially when considering digital business.
Cologne has also become the first German city with a population of more than a million people to declare climate emergency.
Road building had been a major issue in the s under the leadership of mayor Konrad Adenauer. The first German limited-access road was constructed after between Cologne and Bonn.
Today, this is the Bundesautobahn In , Cologne became the first German city to be fully encircled by a motorway ring road. Roughly at the same time, a city centre bypass Stadtautobahn was planned, but only partially put into effect, due to opposition by environmental groups.
Nevertheless, it is referred to as Stadtautobahn by most locals. The last section south of Ebertplatz was completed in Compared to other German cities, Cologne has a traffic layout that is not very bicycle-friendly.
It has repeatedly ranked among the worst in an independent evaluation  conducted by the Allgemeiner Deutscher Fahrrad-Club. In it ranked 36th out of 39 German cities with a population greater than , There are frequent ICE trains to other German cities, including Frankfurt am Main and Berlin.
ICE Trains to London via the Channel Tunnel were planned for The Cologne Stadtbahn operated by Kölner Verkehrsbetriebe KVB  is an extensive light rail system that is partially underground and serves Cologne and a number of neighbouring cities.
It evolved from the tram system. Nearby Bonn is linked by both the Stadtbahn and main line railway trains, and occasional recreational boats on the Rhine.
Düsseldorf is also linked by S-Bahn trains, which are operated by Deutsche Bahn. The Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn has 5 lines which cross Cologne.
There are also frequent buses covering most of the city and surrounding suburbs, and Eurolines coaches to London via Brussels.
Häfen und Güterverkehr Köln Ports and Goods traffic Cologne, HGK is one of the largest operators of inland ports in Germany.
It is also called Konrad Adenauer Airport after Germany's first post-war Chancellor Konrad Adenauer , who was born in the city and was mayor of Cologne from until The airport is shared with the neighbouring city of Bonn.
Cologne is headquarters to the European Aviation Safety Agency EASA. Cologne is home to numerous universities and colleges,   and host to some 72, students.
The Cologne University of Music and Dance is the largest conservatory in Europe. Lauder Morijah School German : Lauder-Morijah-Schule , a Jewish school in Cologne, previously closed.
After Russian immigration increased the Jewish population, the school reopened in Within Germany, Cologne is known as an important media centre.
Several radio and television stations, including Westdeutscher Rundfunk WDR , RTL and VOX , have their headquarters in the city.
Film and TV production is also important. The city is "Germany's capital of TV crime stories". Cologne hosts 1. FC Köln ,  who play in the 1.
They play their home matches in RheinEnergieStadion which also hosted 5 matches of the FIFA World Cup.
Liga third division and the Regionalliga West fourth division respectively. The city is also home of the ice hockey team Kölner Haie , in the highest ice hockey league in Germany, the Deutsche Eishockey Liga.
Several horse races per year are held at Cologne-Weidenpesch Racecourse since , the annual Cologne Marathon was started in Besides, Cologne has a long tradition in rowing , being home of some of Germany's oldest regatta courses and boat clubs, such as the Kölner Rudergesellschaft in the district Rodenkirchen.
Japanese automotive manufacturer Toyota have their major motorsport facility known by the name Toyota Motorsport GmbH.
Which is located in Marsdorf suburb, and is responsible for Toyota's major motorsport development and operations, which in the past included the FIA Formula One World Championship , the FIA World Rally Championship and the Le Mans Series.
Currently they are working on Toyota's team Toyota Gazoo Racing which competes in the FIA World Endurance Championship.
Cologne is considered "the secret golf capital of Germany". The city has hosted several athletic events which includes the FIFA Confederations Cup , FIFA World Cup, World Men's Handball Championship , and Ice Hockey World Championships and Gay Games.
Cologne is twinned with: . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. City in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. For the perfume, see Eau de Cologne.
For other uses of Cologne, see Cologne disambiguation. For other uses of Köln, see Köln disambiguation.
Place in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. From top to bottom, left to right: Great St. Martin Church , Cologne Cathedral , Shrine of the Three Kings , St.
Gereon's Basilica , Flora Botanical Garden , Hohenzollern Bridge. Coat of arms. Cologne within North Rhine-Westphalia.
Main articles: History of Cologne and Timeline of Cologne. Play media. Main article: Districts of Cologne. Main article: Demographics of Cologne. See also: Colognian dialect.
See also: Cologne City Hall. Cologne Cathedral. Cologne City Hall. Main article: Streets in Cologne. Main article: List of museums in Cologne.
Main article: Transport in Cologne. Robert Heller born , former professor, Governor of the Federal Reserve System and President of VISA U.
Trude Herr —91 , actress and singer Jakob Ignaz Hittorff — , French architect of German origin Lutz van der Horst born , comedian Ernst Ising — , mathematician and physicist Yehudah Jacobs c.
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany. Germany portal Europe portal Geography portal.
Dezember " in German. Landesbetrieb Information und Technik NRW. Retrieved 17 June Retrieved 18 April City of Cologne.
Archived from the original on 17 April The Century Cyclopedia of Names. New York: Century Co. Archived from the original on 4 July Retrieved 3 May Michael Hogan, Cologne Wharf , The Megalithic Portal, editor Andy Burnham, ".
Retrieved 24 July The Catholic Encyclopedia , 28 November Huffman, Family, Commerce, and Religion in London and Cologne covers from to Retrieved 5 May Retrieved 1 April Archived from the original on 11 February Retrieved 8 August Time , Inc.
World War Two in Europe. War History Online. Retrieved 15 October Encyclopedia Britannica. Jüdisches Leben in Köln von den Anfängen bis heute.
The Guardian. Retrieved 12 January Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung in German. Retrieved 15 February Retrieved 17 April Mitigation of Climate Induced Natural Hazards MITCH.
Archived from the original PDF on 24 March Retrieved 20 March Retrieved 7 July Retrieved 19 June Traffic and Congestion in the Roman Empire.
Retrieved 5 October Ecologies and Economies in Medieval and Early Modern Europe: Studies in Environmental History for Richard C.
Archived from the original PDF on 3 September Retrieved 25 September Retrieved 20 April Retrieved 22 August Archived from the original PDF on 19 December Retrieved 19 December Deutsche Welle.
Retrieved 6 September Archived from the original on 20 October Retrieved 18 October Retrieved 24 January Retrieved 15 April Retrieved 22 June RP Online.
Retrieved 16 January Retrieved 13 September Archived from the original on 3 July Retrieved 26 July Archived from the original on 27 March Archived from the original on 11 December Archived from the original on 25 January The Local.
Retrieved 28 July Flight International. Ford Germany in German. Retrieved 20 June Retrieved 28 October Retrieved 18 July Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 10 March Brisbane Times.
The local newspaper Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger on 1 January at reported sexual harassment on the New Year's Eve near the Central Train Station,  and so did the Cologne paper Express that day at ,  but neither mentioned ethnicity of the perpetrators.
After the police press conference in Cologne on 4 January at h, where the police president squarely stated that men "from appearance largely from the North African or Arab world" had committed "a very large number of sexual assaults",  the prominent Süddeutsche Zeitung in its first account on its website at still did not mention that ethnicity of the suspects.
The national news media started reporting the ethnicity of suspects apparently on the evening of 4 January news website The Local at h,  TV broadcaster ARD at in their news bulletin Tagesschau ,  the Süddeutsche Zeitung at in an adapted report on their website.
We've been negligent in not at least mentioning the events on 4 January in the 'Heute' bulletin. The editorial staff however decided to postpone their report to the next day when a crisis meeting was planned, to win time for extra interviews.
This was clearly a misjudgement. Because of the perception that the ethnic background of the sex assaulters had been reported 'too late' by the mass media see above , anger and accusations arose on Twitter and other social networking sites as of the afternoon of 4 January , holding that 'the national media' or 'the news media' had been engaged in a cover-up of these New Year's Eve events or had deliberately under-reported them, for fear of encouraging anti-immigrant or anti-refugees sentiments.
News website The Local on 5 January suggested that "the national media" had only started to report on the ethnicity of the assaulters because they were forced to do so by the " social media ".
That discontent in Germany in January over 'the media' was echoed by the Polish Minister of Justice Zbigniew Ziobro on 9 January , [ clarification needed ]  and by the Russian newspaper Rossiyskaya Gazeta contending: official Berlin pretended that nothing out of the ordinary had happened; regional and national German media then demonstrated an astonishing solidarity with the politicians by refusing "to illuminate the extent of robberies, assaults and rapes committed by refugees".
In addition to the distrust towards national news media, political commentators and right-wing politicians accused the authorities or police of trying to cover-up or ignore the New Year's Eve sexual attacks or the ethnic background of the suspects to avoid fueling a backlash against the refugees or migrants who had recently arrived in Germany in great numbers ,      and nearly all German press were wondering whether such political correctness had played a role in 'slow' reporting of the attacks by the police.
Such suspicions towards government and media were enhanced by the specifically German memories of the racial policies of the German Nazi regime —45  and the already existing political controversy over Germany's 'open-door policy' towards refugees in ,  which made criticism of the presence or the behaviour of ethnic minorities highly delicate.
The suspicion of a governmental cover-up proved partly correct in April , when it was discovered that after a first preliminary report of the Cologne police of 2 January , mentioning "rape, sexual assaults and thefts carried out by a large group of foreign nationals" on the New Year's Eve, the North Rhine-Westphalian Interior Ministry telephoned the Cologne police, asking them to tone down the report and remove the word 'rape' from it.
Agitation against the German government was echoed by the Polish and Russian governments. On 7 January , Poland's Foreign Minister Witold Waszczykowski contended that the German government had presumably tried to conceal the events.
The state-run Russian newspaper Rossiyskaya Gazeta for example contended: at the outset, official Berlin pretended that nothing out of the ordinary had happened; regional and national German media then demonstrated an astonishing solidarity with the politicians by refusing to illuminate the extent of robberies, assaults and rapes committed by refugees.
The fact that the sexual attackers on New Year's Eve in Cologne   — and later in Hamburg,  Stuttgart,   Frankfurt,   Bielefeld,   Dortmund,  Paderborn  and Borken  — had allegedly often worked in groups, in sizes from 2 up to men,    quickly led to speculations that those attacks had been organized.
On 8 January , it was discovered by police that one of the suspects had prepared himself for contacting or harassing women, with Arab—German translations written on a piece of paper for phrases like: "beautiful breasts", "I want sex with you" in a coarse idiom, and "I kill you".
The gathering of young men at the central train station came about organically via social networking sites. Rather it is so that such sexual assaults by groups are also a huge problem in, for example, Cairo.
These perpetrators probably knew this behaviour, of surrounding and then abusing women with many other men from their country of descent," said Mathies.
Stuttgart — In the first reported case of sexual assault on New Year's Eve —16 in Stuttgart , reported on 3 January by a local newspaper, the attackers were described as a group of "southern people" with " Arab " looks.
Cologne — The police president of Cologne , Wolfgang Albers , on 4 January at a press conference described the offenders of the sexual assaults in the New Year's Eve in Cologne as young men "from appearance largely from the north African or Arab world",   after all witnesses had given that racial description to the police.
Hamburg — The Hamburg police in its announcement on 5 January described the perpetrators of the sexual harassment on New Year's Eve as men "with southern or Arab looks" "in some cases," operating in groups of perhaps 20 to 40 persons.
Dortmund — Several of the perpetrators of sexual attacks on New Year's Eve —16 in Dortmund were described on 5 January as speaking broken German or broken English.
Frankfurt — The victims of the first 22 reported sexual attacks on New Year's Eve —16 in Frankfurt described the perpetrators, between 5 and 11 January, as groups of men from Arab or north African origin.
Bielefeld — All six women who had been sexually harassed in Bielefeld on New Year's Eve —16 described their harassers as men with migration backgrounds;  these same men were described by the police on 6 January as "immigrants", mostly Algerians and Moroccans.
Düsseldorf — On 8 January , all 41 victims in Düsseldorf of sexual attacks on New Year's Eve described their assailants as North African or Arab in appearance.
Further German cities — Several women who reported having been sexually harassed in Paderborn on New Year's Eve —16 described the perpetrators as "north African" men; two victims in Detmold described the offenders as "foreign" looking men.
All of Germany In July , the Bundeskriminalamt German Federal Criminal Police stated that approximately half of the identified suspects nationwide of sexual violence on New Year's Eve appeared to have come to Germany in with the great flow of refugees which that year had reached Germany , and most of the suspects came from North Africa.
Cologne On 4 January , Cologne's police president Wolfgang Albers stated that many of the offenders of the sexual assaults on New Year's Eve had been known to the police for some time; therefore, they were not newly-arrived refugees ,  which he contradicted the next day by saying that the police "has no knowledge yet about the offenders".
On 5 January, Cologne mayor Henriette Reker said in a press conference that there were no indications of "refugees" being among the perpetrators of the sexual assaults, and that presumptions of that sort were "completely intolerable";   she judged it "completely improper … to link a group that appeared to come from North Africa with the refugees" who had arrived in record numbers in Germany in the year On 8 January, 31 suspects of various offences during New Year's Eve in Cologne had been identified: 18 of them appeared to be asylum seekers , according to the Federal Ministry of the Interior.
On around 15 February, the British online newspaper The Independent stated that of the first 73 identified suspects accused of robbing or sexually harassing women or committing other offences on New Year's Eve in Cologne, only three were refugees.
Hamburg — Some of the first eight identified suspects in the New Year's Eve sexual assaults in Hamburg were identified as "refugees" according to the police on 14 January Frankfurt — The first ten arrested suspects of sexual attacks on New Year's Eve —16 in Frankfurt were all refugees, said the Frankfurter police on 11 January.
Detmold — Two reported rape attempts on New Year's Eve —16 in Detmold , by "foreign" looking men, were reported as having taken place "in direct vicinity of a refugees' shelter".
Borken NRW — Two reported sexual assaults on girls in Borken North Rhine-Westphalia on New Year's Eve —16 were attributed by police to "several asylum seekers".
Newspapers on 4 and 5 January immediately pointed out that, although massive sexual harassment was unknown in modern Germany and Europe, the Cologne New Year's Eve events strongly resembled mass sexual assaults on Tahrir Square in Cairo, Egypt, during political mass demonstrations in , and These perpetrators probably knew this behaviour of surrounding and then abusing women with many other men from their country of descent".
In January , an Iranian -American writer and student of anthropology had put in perspective suggestions from Western commentators that mass sexual harassment is part of Arab culture, saying that such sexual harassment is not common practice in Egypt or in other parts of the Arab world, where it is as shocking to average people as anywhere else.
On 6 January , during a women's discussion in Cologne, one of them contended that the sexual harassment on New Year's Eve had not been different from the violence during other big celebrations in the city, and that it had only become a burning topic for the media this time because "refugees" or "migrants", who had recently became a controversial issue in Germany, were the accused perpetrators this time, instead of native German-born men.
On 11 January , the North Rhine-Westphalian Minister-President Kraft SPD and North Rhine-Westphalian Interior Minister Jäger SPD criticised the Cologne police for not having requested police reinforcements which they said had been on standby on New Year's Eve.
A Cologne-based imam , in an interview for a Russian television channel around 20 January , gave a possible explanation for the attacks: women on New Year's Eve were lightly dressed and wore perfume; young men had taken pills or drugs or had drunk alcohol, were therefore disinhibited, and thus groped those women.
A report from the end of February by the Bundeskriminalamt Federal Criminal Police analyzing hundreds of cases of alleged sexual assault in Cologne, Hamburg, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, and Stuttgart on New Year's Eve, which was made public in June , mentioned factors that seem to have favoured those sexual assaults by groups : .
The President of the German police union Gewerkschaft der Polizei in North Rhine-Westphalia , Arnold Plickert, said on 4 January over the sexual attacks in Cologne : "This is a totally new dimension of violence.
Such a thing was unknown to us, until now"; the strongly alcoholized perpetrators had acted "fully unleashed violent". On 5 January, also Cologne's police chief Albers called the sex attacks "a completely new dimension of crime",  but the German Justice Minister Heiko Maas SPD that day went even further, declaring these assaults a "completely new dimension of organized criminality".
A Member of the German Parliament for the CDU party, Steffen Bilger , wrote on Twitter in the evening of 4 January , reacting on 'Cologne': "It can't go on like this.
Urgently needed: reduction of influx". Ross Douthat , a columnist for The New York Times , on 9 January advised Germany to close its borders for new immigrants for the time being, because: — ordinary Germans don't want the generous immigration policies which led to one million immigrants in ; — immigrants will have difficulties in assimilation; — immigrants will commit violence and terrorism, see the recent attacks in Paris January and November , see now 'Cologne'; — immigrants in such high numbers could Islamificate Europe; — many among the large numbers of young immigrated men in Europe and Germany in hold unacceptable views on women.
On 12 January, Hans-Jürgen Papier , former head of the German Federal Constitutional Court , stated that the government should separate its granting of asylum from its migration policies and "secure the borders" of Germany.
Von Mengersen, head of the nationalist Pro NRW party in Germany, reacted on 4 or 5 January , recalling the recent large influx of migrants into Germany : "We locals can no longer put up with everything that is being routinely swept under the rug based on a false sense of tolerance".
The liberal conservative German magazine Cicero , in more guarded terms, blamed the migrants by suggesting "the government's loss of control" on who enters Germany had caused these New Year's Eve's sexual assaults.
Donald Trump tweeted on 6 January: "Germany is going through massive attacks to its people by the migrants … ". The Czech Prime Minister Bohuslav Sobotka on 8 January supported Fico's proposal.
On 7 January, the North Rhine-Westphalian Interior Minister Ralf Jäger said that anti-immigrant groups were using the New Year's Eve sex assaults to stir up hatred against refugees: "What happens on the right-wing platforms and in chat rooms is at least as awful as the acts of those assaulting the women This is poisoning the climate of our society.
On 9 January, German Chancellor Angela Merkel promised tougher action and measures against criminals of foreign nationality,  and on 11 January she reacted to the sex attacks, saying: "Refugees are coming to Europe and we are vulnerable, as we see … ".
In the evening of 5 January , between and people, mostly women, protested outside the Cologne Cathedral , demanding respect for women and action from Chancellor Angela Merkel.
On 13 January, 22 German feminists pleaded in an open letter that the anger after the Cologne incidents should not be directed against groups or ethnicities such as Muslims, Arabs, blacks, or North Africans, as sexualised violence is omnipresent everyday and not only a problem emanating from 'the others' who are non- white 'non-Germans'.
In reaction to the sexual assaults, Hannelore Kraft SPD , Minister-President of North Rhine-Westphalia , said on 5 January that perpetrators should be deported if possible.
North Rhine-Westphalian Interior Minister Ralf Jäger SPD said on 7 January that the police have to learn from these events and "conceptually adjust" to the fact that groups of men can assault women en masse.
The Prime Minister of Slovakia , Robert Fico , said on 7 January he would make a concentrated effort to prevent Muslim migrants from entering Slovakia.
On 8 January, the Czech Prime Minister Bohuslav Sobotka supported Fico's proposal. In May , the German journalist, publisher, and feminist Alice Schwarzer wrote that the assaulters of the Cologne New Year's Eve had been "fanaticized followers of Sharia Islam …they were not average Muslims [but] the type of men who place sharia above the law and the woman below the man…Most of the German Muslim organizations have been busying themselves in recent decades with infiltrating the sharia into our legal system".
She dismissed the charge of trying to infiltrate the German legal system with sharia as "nonsense". On 7 January , Poland's Foreign Minister Witold Waszczykowski contended that the migration wave to Europe , which he linked to the Cologne events, had been used by ISIL or other terrorist organizations.
If borders of the Schengen Zone are not controlled, the Schengen system i. Economic Professor Emeritus Hans-Werner Sinn , ranked by several papers as one of the leading German intellectuals, reacted on 1 February to "the Cologne New Year's Eve events", stating:  Germany, because of its history, has a lasting obligation to protect those who are politically persecuted , but not to put up with a massive and uncontrolled rush of economic refugees.
If a state, for example Germany, neglects to effectively protect its borders and thus to protect its public assets and its social security system, chaos, violence and inefficiency would damage that state to such a degree that it could no longer fulfil its aforementioned humanitary assignments.
In the current situation though, with Germany being part of the Schengen Area , it would suffice for Germany if the outer borders of that Schengen Zone were effectively protected, which presently would require most of all protecting the Schengen outer borders of Italy and Slovenia.
Italy, Sinn suggested, should bring the refugees back to Africa as — according to Sinn — Spain was already doing ; Slovenia should be assisted in securing its outside Schengen border.
On those controlled outer Schengen borders, reception camps for arriving asylum applicants could then be erected, and the asylum applicants qualifying there for asylum according to uniform European asylum criteria could be distributed over those Schengen countries willing to accept their share of them.
The Süddeutsche Zeitung newspaper published on Saturday, 9 January an illustration of a black arm reaching up between white female legs, which has been criticised as racism by other media and journalists;   the Süddeutsche apologised for it the next day.
On its 9 January front cover, the German magazine Focus showed a naked blonde white woman, stained by black handprints all over her body, accompanied by the text: "After the sex attacks by migrants: Are we still tolerant or already blind?
The title of the linked article was "The Islamic rape of Europe". The French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo on 13 January published a cartoon, recalling the Kurdish-Syrian three-year-old boy Alan Kurdi who, in September , while fleeing with his family from the Syrian civil war , had drowned in the Mediterranean Sea.
The dramatic photo of his dead body, published by nearly every serious news medium in the Western world, had elicited on the one hand awe and commiseration, and on the other hand irritation at 'dead-child porn for progressives'.
Charlie Hebdo pictured Alan Kurdi as a grown-up man lecherously chasing a running blonde woman. The accompanying text goes: "Migrants.
Tripoteur de fesses en Allemagne" "Migrants. What would little Aylan have grown up to be? Ass groper in Germany".
Two professors of constitutional law and former members of the German Federal Constitutional Court , Udo Di Fabio and Hans-Jürgen Papier , remarked on 14 January that the federal government had suspended the constitutional state by unconditionally opening the country's borders in On around 20 January , Russian television channel REN TV cited the Cologne-based imam Sami Abu-Yusuf as blaming the women for the sexual assaults, because they had been walking around perfumed and 'half-naked'.
Within weeks, it was clear that most suspects of the sexual assaults had come from North Africa. Analyst Michelle Martin, for website reuters.
Also, these men were not legally permitted to work. Virtually none of them was entitled asylum as a 'genuine refugee'. These young men had arrived with high hopes for life in "paradise", but soon found out all they got was a bed and a small stipend, as the vice-president of the German Moroccan society described it.
Thus, these men were vulnerable to being "corrupted by a ringleader who says: let's rob the department store or steal a mobile phone or clothes, and we'll have a bit of money when we sell them".
In May , the Dutch news website de Correspondent , in an analysis of the publicity since 4 January , suggested that an incorrect public perception of the Cologne attacks, as "a mob of 1, refugees going after the women of Germany", had taken hold in the first three days and never went away.
It suggested as a more accurate perception, that only "dozens" of young men were suspected of sexual assaults in Cologne.
Two years later in , the editorial staff of the Spiegel Online magazine postulated that the events of Cologne's —16 New Year's Eve had ended "the sense of euphoria that had accompanied the welcoming of hundreds of thousands of refugees into Germany in ".
Immediately after 4 January reports about Cologne, sales to women of pepper spray for self-defense exploded in Germany. In Düsseldorf , where later complaints over sexual offences in the New Year's Eve would be registered,  a vigilante group was founded on 5 January in reaction to the then published events in Cologne.
The Facebook page of this Düsseldorf passt auf "Düsseldorf Watches Out" group garnered 3, members within two days. Cologne's chief of police Wolfgang Albers was soon criticized, also bearing in mind his questionable performance in two affairs in previous years.
On 8 January, even the German Police Trade Union 's president Rainer Wendt severely criticized Albers, saying the chief of police together with the police force under his responsibility had caused a communication disaster by first stating the New Year's Eve had passed calmly, later having to admit this first information had been wrong.
On 10 January , the Bundeskriminalamt Federal Criminal Police announced a nationwide investigation in Germany on communal sexual harassment , purportedly known as taharrush gamea in Arab countries.
On Sunday, 10 January , six Pakistanis were attacked in the city of Cologne by around 20 people. Two of them briefly needed treatment in a hospital.
On 11 January , columnist Jakob Augstein in Spiegel Online argued that the German laws concerning sex crimes were lagging behind, because under the current law, unconsensual sex in Germany was only a penal offence in case the unwilling participant had physically, noticeably defended himself or herself:   simply saying "No" was not enough to find a defendant guilty.
Before the Carnival events took place, from 4 until 9 February, the police in Cologne had prepared a force of over 2, officers, more than three times the number of the previous year.
On the first night of the Düsseldorf Carnival of 4 February , the police presence was also doubled compared to the previous year. Between 17 and 23 January , the police in North Rhine-Westphalia pursued five raids, purportedly to search for delinquents among immigrants.
On Sunday, 17 January, nearly police officers sealed off several streets in the vicinity of Düsseldorf Hauptbahnhof , to check out some North Africans in the area.
On 19 January, police showed up in refugee shelters in the small town of Ahlen. On 19 and 20 January, police cruised the Kalk district of Cologne where they arrested six people.
On 22 January before dawn, dozens of policemen visited refugee shelters in Recklinghausen and woke all residents up.
On 27 January , the Cologne police placed restraining orders on some of the New Year's Eve suspects, for the area of Cologne's old town, cathedral , and central train station , during the Carnival celebrations lasting from 4 until 9 February.
On 30 January , a girls' Gymnasium , the archiepiscopal Ursulinenschule in Cologne, announced that the school would remain closed on the day of Weiberfastnacht women's fasting night , on 4 February.
A school leader asserted to the Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger newspaper: "We want to spare our female pupils the road to school, on this day [ As of early January , the Cologne police evaluated 1, hours of video footage from surveillance cameras and from telephones of witnesses,  but on 18 January, a policeman anonymously said to the press that several of the video recordings of the Cologne Cathedal plaza on New Year's Eve were unusable.
Hamburg In Hamburg , on 20 January the police published photos of two suspects of sexual assaults on New Year's Eve,  which led to the recognition of one of them - a year-old male migrant from Afghanistan - the next day, by a guard in a refugee center, and the suspect's arrest.
On 26 January, the Hamburger police published a photo taken with a surveillance camera of a year-old Iranian man   who was suspected to have groped two young women on New Year's Eve,  which led to him being recognized by one victim and his subsequent arrest.
On 4 February, the Hamburger police released photos of two further suspects; the national TV series Aktenzeichen XY … ungelöst "Case number XY … unsolved" was also used for the tracing of Hamburg perpetrators.
Düsseldorf In February , an year-old girl from Mönchengladbach, sexually harassed in Düsseldorf on New Year's Eve, recognized her harasser on television, which led to his arrest on around 14 February.
Cologne On 8 March , the Cologne police published the first five photos of suspects of sexual harassment on New Year's Eve, quickly leading to the arrest of two of them.
Since , the Düsseldorf police  in the so-called "Casablanca"-project had registered 2, suspects from North Africa who were supposedly criminally active,   in Düsseldorf.
The Düsseldorf police said on 6 January that they were now investigating whether any of those suspects were involved in the theft and sex crimes on Cologne New Year's Eve — Cologne — On 15 January , the state attorney of North Rhine-Westphalia offered 10, euro as a reward for informations that would lead to the tracing of perpetrators of the Cologne New Year's Eve sexual assaults,  to be shared among all informants.
Hamburg — The Hamburg police on 4 February offered 2, euro for information leading to the tracing of perpetrators of the New Year's Eve sexual assaults in Hamburg.
The Hamburg professor of law Reinhard Merkel stated on 18 January , "I don't suppose the perpetrators will be sentenced".
This was because for a conviction, it is mandatory that the victim is fully sure of the identity of the offender, and that her statements on this point are credible enough.
General On 7 January , police reported sixteen suspects of mob sex attacks on the past New Year's Eve in Cologne, Hamburg, or other cities.
In July , the Bundeskriminalamt German Federal Criminal Police stated that more than 2, men had participated in sexual offences on New Year's Eve in all of Germany,   but doubted whether more than the identified so far would ever be identified.
General On 8 January , the German federal police knew the names of 31 suspects of various offences on New Year's Eve nationwide, most of them for inflicting physical harm or robbery; none of them were suspected of sexual offences.
Cologne On 8 January , the Federal Ministry of the Interior stated that 31 suspects of various offences during New Year's Eve in Cologne had been identified by name.
They included nine Algerians , eight Moroccans , four Syrians , five Iranians , two Germans , an Iraqi , a Serb , and an American.
On 11 January, the number of identified suspects of various crimes in Cologne on New Year's Eve was reported to be Around 7 February , a young woman identified from police photos eight presumed perpetrators of sexual offences in Cologne on New Year's Eve.
They included 30 Moroccans, 27 Algerians, 4 Iraqis, 3 Tunisians, 3 Syrians, 3 Germans, and one each from Libya, Iran, and Montenegro.
As of 6 April , the Cologne police had traced suspects in relation to various offences on New Year's Eve; of them were foreigners, with of this group from Morocco or Algeria , 68 asylum applicants, 18 others presumably illegally living in Germany.
Four of these suspects were unaccompanied underaged refugees. Frankfurt On 11 January , the Frankfurter police had identified and arrested ten suspects of sexual attacks in the New Year's Eve —16 in Frankfurt, they were all refugees.
Hamburg On 14 January , the Hamburg police had traced eight suspects who had committed various offences  or sexual assaults on New Year's Eve in Hamburg; some of them were refugees,   some lived in the city for years,  while others had a migration background.
Stuttgart On 17 January , in Stuttgart , an asylum seeker from Iraq was identified and arrested as suspect of harassing two girls in the New Year's Eve.
Dortmund In Dortmund , on 18 January , the police said that of the first nine identified suspects of various offences on New Year's Eve, seven were foreigners.
Düsseldorf In Düsseldorf , on 20 January , nine suspects of various offences on New Year's Eve had been identified; eight of them were originally from abroad.
Bielefeld In Bielefeld , on 20 January , four suspects of various offences on New Year's Eve had been traced, all from Morocco or Algeria.
On 8 January , the Cologne police arrested and took into custody two men suspected of various offences on New Year's Eve,  but they were set free within two days for lack of specific suspicions.
On 21 January, eight suspects of various offences were under investigative custody in Cologne,  on 29 January this number had risen to ten,  on 16 February to 15 suspects.
By 6 April , the Cologne police still held 24 suspects of various offences from New Year's Eve in investigative custody.
Frankfurt On 11 January , the Frankfurt police said that the first ten arrested suspects of sexual attacks on New Year's Eve —16 in Frankfurt were all refugees.