Die Natural Selection Tour des visionären Snowboarders Travis Rice ist eine Snowboard-Competition der Weltklasse, welche Freestyle-Tricks. Webseiten der Georg-August-Universität Göttingen. This is a non-sequitur, for activities may affect evolution not directly, through heredity, but indirectly, by influencing the direction of the selective forces impinging on.
Planet Erde – Wunder des Lebens (Natural Selection)On the Origin of Species: By Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life | Darwin, Charles | ISBN: Travis Rice, der letzte verbliebene Superstar des Snowboardens, zieht sein neuestes Projekt groß auf. Mit der „Natural Selection Tour“. Natural selection causes organisms to adapt continuously. Researchers at the University of Zurich now show for the first time that proteins in.
Natural Selection Navigation menu VideoNatural Selection Tour 2021 Show Opener Successful variations accumulate over the generations as the organisms are exposed to population pressure. Natural selection acts on the phenotype, the characteristics of the organism which actually interact with the environment, but the genetic heritable basis of any phenotype Vase Rosenthal gives that phenotype a reproductive advantage may become more common in a population. The neutral theory of molecular evolution. Nov 28, · Natural selection is a pressure that causes groups of organisms to change over time. Animals inherit their genetics from their parents or ancestors, and the environment is constantly changing. So, no organism is perfectly adapted to its environment. Thus, natural selection is constantly influencing the evolution of roadsmillslaps.com: Gabe Buckley. Natural Selection Definition Evolution is the cumulative change in the characteristics of an organism or a population over the next generations. It is sometimes summarized as descent with modification. Natural selection is one of the mechanisms that drives evolution.
Staffel von The Natural Selection keinem Anbieter in Deutschland angeboten. - Folgen Sie Darwin auf seiner Reise in die Geheimnisse der Evolution.Nur die Dimensionen haben sich verändert.
In the desert where they live, there is lots of sunlight, little water and occasionally an animal that would love a juicy bite.
As a result, cacti have developed compact bodies or small, succulent leaves with thick skins to protect against the strong sun and minimize water loss.
They can also store water and have sharp spikes to discourage animals. The cacti with these traits were the fittest, and they are still evolving.
Another example is the change in the field mustard plant caused by the drought in Southern California. To survive a drought, plants must grow, flower and distribute their seeds quickly.
The Southern California field mustard plants that flowered early became dominant while those flowering later died out.
Animals have more scope for influencing their survival because they can engage in complex behavior patterns. Traits that can determine fitness fall under three main categories.
The ability to find enough food through hunting or foraging is a key for survival. Most animals have predators , and specific traits allow them to avoid being eaten.
Finally, the ability to find and attract a mate allows them to pass their positive traits on to offspring.
Animals evolve continuously, first to better adapt to a given environment and then, if the environment changes, to the new environment.
Natural selection can cause evolutionary changes in existing populations and can also favor one species over another if two species are competing for the same space and resources.
Natural selection in animals is best seen when the environment changes in some way, and animals with specific characteristics become better suited and soon become dominant.
For example, the peppered moth in London was light-colored with dark spots. During the industrial revolution, buildings became darkened with soot.
Birds could easily see the light-colored moths against the dark background, and soon only dark-colored moths were left. Natural selection favored the moths with more and larger dark spots.
In another example, say some insects become resistant to a chemical pesticide very quickly. Even if only a few individuals are resistant, the rest will die off, and the resistant insects will survive.
Insects typically produce large numbers of offspring, so the insects with the resistant genes will rapidly take over. In an example of reproductive preference, female peacocks choose mates based on the size and brightness of their tails.
After the effects of natural selection , almost all peacock males today have large, brightly colored tails. There is differential reproduction.
Since the environment can't support unlimited population growth, not all individuals get to reproduce to their full potential. In this example, green beetles tend to get eaten by birds and survive to reproduce less often than brown beetles do.
There is heredity. The surviving brown beetles have brown baby beetles because this trait has a genetic basis. End result: The more advantageous trait, brown coloration, which allows the beetle to have more offspring, becomes more common in the population.
If this process continues, eventually, all individuals in the population will be brown. Download this series of graphics from the Image library. See how the simple mechanisms of natural selection can produce complex structures , learn about misconceptions regarding natural selection , or review the history of the idea of natural selection.
Learn more about natural selection in context: Angling for evolutionary answers: The work of David O. Image On the Origin of Species English naturalist Charles Darwin wrote the definitive book outlining his idea of natural selection, On the Origin of Species.
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If then, it is agreed that things are either the result of coincidence or for an end, and these cannot be the result of coincidence or spontaneity, it follows that they must be for an end; and that such things are all due to nature even the champions of the theory which is before us would agree.
Therefore action for an end is present in things which come to be and are by nature. The struggle for existence was later described by the Islamic writer Al-Jahiz in the 9th century.
The classical arguments were reintroduced in the 18th century by Pierre Louis Maupertuis  and others, including Darwin's grandfather, Erasmus Darwin.
Until the early 19th century, the prevailing view in Western societies was that differences between individuals of a species were uninteresting departures from their Platonic ideals or typus of created kinds.
However, the theory of uniformitarianism in geology promoted the idea that simple, weak forces could act continuously over long periods of time to produce radical changes in the Earth 's landscape.
The success of this theory raised awareness of the vast scale of geological time and made plausible the idea that tiny, virtually imperceptible changes in successive generations could produce consequences on the scale of differences between species.
The early 19th-century zoologist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck suggested the inheritance of acquired characteristics as a mechanism for evolutionary change; adaptive traits acquired by an organism during its lifetime could be inherited by that organism's progeny, eventually causing transmutation of species.
Between and , the zoologist Edward Blyth worked on the area of variation, artificial selection, and how a similar process occurs in nature.
Darwin acknowledged Blyth's ideas in the first chapter on variation of On the Origin of Species. In , Charles Darwin set out his theory of evolution by natural selection as an explanation for adaptation and speciation.
He defined natural selection as the "principle by which each slight variation [of a trait], if useful, is preserved". As long as there is some variation between them and that variation is heritable , there will be an inevitable selection of individuals with the most advantageous variations.
If the variations are heritable, then differential reproductive success leads to a progressive evolution of particular populations of a species, and populations that evolve to be sufficiently different eventually become different species.
Darwin's ideas were inspired by the observations that he had made on the second voyage of HMS Beagle — , and by the work of a political economist, Thomas Robert Malthus , who, in An Essay on the Principle of Population , noted that population if unchecked increases exponentially , whereas the food supply grows only arithmetically ; thus, inevitable limitations of resources would have demographic implications, leading to a "struggle for existence".
It struck him that as population outgrew resources, "favourable variations would tend to be preserved, and unfavourable ones to be destroyed.
The result of this would be the formation of new species. If during the long course of ages and under varying conditions of life, organic beings vary at all in the several parts of their organisation, and I think this cannot be disputed; if there be, owing to the high geometrical powers of increase of each species, at some age, season, or year, a severe struggle for life, and this certainly cannot be disputed; then, considering the infinite complexity of the relations of all organic beings to each other and to their conditions of existence, causing an infinite diversity in structure, constitution, and habits, to be advantageous to them, I think it would be a most extraordinary fact if no variation ever had occurred useful to each being's own welfare, in the same way as so many variations have occurred useful to man.
But if variations useful to any organic being do occur, assuredly individuals thus characterised will have the best chance of being preserved in the struggle for life; and from the strong principle of inheritance they will tend to produce offspring similarly characterised.
This principle of preservation, I have called, for the sake of brevity, Natural Selection. Once he had his theory, Darwin was meticulous about gathering and refining evidence before making his idea public.
He was in the process of writing his "big book" to present his research when the naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace independently conceived of the principle and described it in an essay he sent to Darwin to forward to Charles Lyell.
Lyell and Joseph Dalton Hooker decided to present his essay together with unpublished writings that Darwin had sent to fellow naturalists, and On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection was read to the Linnean Society of London announcing co-discovery of the principle in July In the 3rd edition of Darwin acknowledged that others—like William Charles Wells in , and Patrick Matthew in —had proposed similar ideas, but had neither developed them nor presented them in notable scientific publications.
Darwin thought of natural selection by analogy to how farmers select crops or livestock for breeding, which he called " artificial selection "; in his early manuscripts he referred to a "Nature" which would do the selection.
At the time, other mechanisms of evolution such as evolution by genetic drift were not yet explicitly formulated, and Darwin believed that selection was likely only part of the story: "I am convinced that Natural Selection has been the main but not exclusive means of modification.
For Darwin and his contemporaries, natural selection was in essence synonymous with evolution by natural selection.
After the publication of On the Origin of Species ,  educated people generally accepted that evolution had occurred in some form.
However, natural selection remained controversial as a mechanism, partly because it was perceived to be too weak to explain the range of observed characteristics of living organisms, and partly because even supporters of evolution balked at its "unguided" and non- progressive nature,  a response that has been characterised as the single most significant impediment to the idea's acceptance.
Herbert Spencer of the Survival of the Fittest is more accurate, and is sometimes equally convenient. Natural selection relies crucially on the idea of heredity, but developed before the basic concepts of genetics.
Although the Moravian monk Gregor Mendel , the father of modern genetics, was a contemporary of Darwin's, his work lay in obscurity, only being rediscovered in Ronald Fisher developed the required mathematical language and wrote The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection Haldane introduced the concept of the "cost" of natural selection.
Ernst Mayr recognised the key importance of reproductive isolation for speciation in his Systematics and the Origin of Species Hamilton conceived of kin selection in A second synthesis was brought about at the end of the 20th century by advances in molecular genetics , creating the field of evolutionary developmental biology "evo-devo" , which seeks to explain the evolution of form in terms of the genetic regulatory programs which control the development of the embryo at molecular level.
Natural selection is here understood to act on embryonic development to change the morphology of the adult body.
The term natural selection is most often defined to operate on heritable traits, because these directly participate in evolution. However, natural selection is "blind" in the sense that changes in phenotype can give a reproductive advantage regardless of whether or not the trait is heritable.
Following Darwin's primary usage, the term is used to refer both to the evolutionary consequence of blind selection and to its mechanisms. Natural variation occurs among the individuals of any population of organisms.
Some differences may improve an individual's chances of surviving and reproducing such that its lifetime reproductive rate is increased, which means that it leaves more offspring.
If the traits that give these individuals a reproductive advantage are also heritable , that is, passed from parent to offspring, then there will be differential reproduction, that is, a slightly higher proportion of fast rabbits or efficient algae in the next generation.
Even if the reproductive advantage is very slight, over many generations any advantageous heritable trait becomes dominant in the population.
In this way the natural environment of an organism "selects for" traits that confer a reproductive advantage, causing evolutionary change, as Darwin described.
The peppered moth exists in both light and dark colours in Great Britain, but during the industrial revolution , many of the trees on which the moths rested became blackened by soot , giving the dark-coloured moths an advantage in hiding from predators.
This gave dark-coloured moths a better chance of surviving to produce dark-coloured offspring, and in just fifty years from the first dark moth being caught, nearly all of the moths in industrial Manchester were dark.
The balance was reversed by the effect of the Clean Air Act , and the dark moths became rare again, demonstrating the influence of natural selection on peppered moth evolution.
The concept of fitness is central to natural selection. In broad terms, individuals that are more "fit" have better potential for survival, as in the well-known phrase " survival of the fittest ", but the precise meaning of the term is much more subtle.
Modern evolutionary theory defines fitness not by how long an organism lives, but by how successful it is at reproducing. If an organism lives half as long as others of its species, but has twice as many offspring surviving to adulthood, its genes become more common in the adult population of the next generation.
Though natural selection acts on individuals, the effects of chance mean that fitness can only really be defined "on average" for the individuals within a population.
The fitness of a particular genotype corresponds to the average effect on all individuals with that genotype. A mathematical example of "survival of the fittest" is given by Haldane in his paper "The Cost of Natural Selection".
This is correctly described by the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
On the other hand, "improvement in fitness" is not dependent on the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype, it is dependent on the absolute survival of the particular variant.
The probability of a beneficial mutation occurring on some member of a population depends on the total number of replications of that variant.
The mathematics of "improvement in fitness was described by Kleinman. Fixation or substitution is not required for this "improvement in fitness".
On the other hand, "improvement in fitness" can occur in an environment where "survival of the fittest" is also acting. Richard Lenski 's classic E.
The variant which is a candidate for a beneficial mutation in this limited carrying capacity environment must first out-compete the "less fit" variants in order to accumulate the requisite number of replications for there to be a reasonable probability of that beneficial mutation occurring.
In biology, competition is an interaction between organisms in which the fitness of one is lowered by the presence of another.
This may be because both rely on a limited supply of a resource such as food, water, or territory. Wilson 's work on island biogeography.
Typically, r -selected species exploit empty niches , and produce many offspring, each with a relatively low probability of surviving to adulthood.
In contrast, K -selected species are strong competitors in crowded niches, and invest more heavily in much fewer offspring, each with a relatively high probability of surviving to adulthood.
Natural selection can act on any heritable phenotypic trait ,  and selective pressure can be produced by any aspect of the environment, including sexual selection and competition with members of the same or other species.
Selection can be classified in several different ways, such as by its effect on a trait, on genetic diversity, by the life cycle stage where it acts, by the unit of selection, or by the resource being competed for.
Selection has different effects on traits. Stabilizing selection acts to hold a trait at a stable optimum, and in the simplest case all deviations from this optimum are selectively disadvantageous.
Directional selection favours extreme values of a trait. The uncommon disruptive selection also acts during transition periods when the current mode is sub-optimal, but alters the trait in more than one direction.
In particular, if the trait is quantitative and univariate then both higher and lower trait levels are favoured.
Disruptive selection can be a precursor to speciation. Alternatively, selection can be divided according to its effect on genetic diversity.
Purifying or negative selection acts to remove genetic variation from the population and is opposed by de novo mutation , which introduces new variation.
One mechanism for this is heterozygote advantage , where individuals with two different alleles have a selective advantage over individuals with just one allele.
The polymorphism at the human ABO blood group locus has been explained in this way. Another option is to classify selection by the life cycle stage at which it acts.
Some biologists recognise just two types: viability or survival selection , which acts to increase an organism's probability of survival, and fecundity or fertility or reproductive selection, which acts to increase the rate of reproduction, given survival.
Others split the life cycle into further components of selection. Thus viability and survival selection may be defined separately and respectively as acting to improve the probability of survival before and after reproductive age is reached, while fecundity selection may be split into additional sub-components including sexual selection, gametic selection, acting on gamete survival, and compatibility selection, acting on zygote formation.
Selection can also be classified by the level or unit of selection. Individual selection acts on the individual, in the sense that adaptations are "for" the benefit of the individual, and result from selection among individuals.
Gene selection acts directly at the level of the gene. In kin selection and intragenomic conflict , gene-level selection provides a more apt explanation of the underlying process.
Group selection , if it occurs, acts on groups of organisms, on the assumption that groups replicate and mutate in an analogous way to genes and individuals.
There is an ongoing debate over the degree to which group selection occurs in nature. Finally, selection can be classified according to the resource being competed for.
Sexual selection results from competition for mates. Sexual selection typically proceeds via fecundity selection, sometimes at the expense of viability.
Ecological selection is natural selection via any means other than sexual selection, such as kin selection, competition, and infanticide. Following Darwin, natural selection is sometimes defined as ecological selection, in which case sexual selection is considered a separate mechanism.
Sexual selection as first articulated by Darwin using the example of the peacock 's tail  refers specifically to competition for mates,  which can be intrasexual , between individuals of the same sex, that is male—male competition, or intersexual , where one gender chooses mates , most often with males displaying and females choosing.
Phenotypic traits can be displayed in one sex and desired in the other sex, causing a positive feedback loop called a Fisherian runaway , for example, the extravagant plumage of some male birds such as the peacock.
Aggression between members of the same sex is sometimes associated with very distinctive features, such as the antlers of stags , which are used in combat with other stags.
More generally, intrasexual selection is often associated with sexual dimorphism , including differences in body size between males and females of a species.
Natural selection is seen in action in the development of antibiotic resistance in microorganisms. Since the discovery of penicillin in , antibiotics have been used to fight bacterial diseases.
The widespread misuse of antibiotics has selected for microbial resistance to antibiotics in clinical use, to the point that the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA has been described as a "superbug" because of the threat it poses to health and its relative invulnerability to existing drugs.
A similar situation occurs with pesticide resistance in plants and insects. Arms races are not necessarily induced by man; a well-documented example involves the spread of a gene in the butterfly Hypolimnas bolina suppressing male-killing activity by Wolbachia bacteria parasites on the island of Samoa , where the spread of the gene is known to have occurred over a period of just five years  .
A prerequisite for natural selection to result in adaptive evolution, novel traits and speciation is the presence of heritable genetic variation that results in fitness differences.
Genetic variation is the result of mutations, genetic recombinations and alterations in the karyotype the number, shape, size and internal arrangement of the chromosomes.
Any of these changes might have an effect that is highly advantageous or highly disadvantageous, but large effects are rare.
In the past, most changes in the genetic material were considered neutral or close to neutral because they occurred in noncoding DNA or resulted in a synonymous substitution.
However, many mutations in non-coding DNA have deleterious effects. Some mutations occur in "toolkit" or regulatory genes. Changes in these often have large effects on the phenotype of the individual because they regulate the function of many other genes.
Most, but not all, mutations in regulatory genes result in non-viable embryos. Some nonlethal regulatory mutations occur in HOX genes in humans, which can result in a cervical rib  or polydactyly , an increase in the number of fingers or toes.
Established traits are not immutable; traits that have high fitness in one environmental context may be much less fit if environmental conditions change.
In the absence of natural selection to preserve such a trait, it becomes more variable and deteriorate over time, possibly resulting in a vestigial manifestation of the trait, also called evolutionary baggage.
In many circumstances, the apparently vestigial structure may retain a limited functionality, or may be co-opted for other advantageous traits in a phenomenon known as preadaptation.
A famous example of a vestigial structure, the eye of the blind mole-rat , is believed to retain function in photoperiod perception.
Speciation requires a degree of reproductive isolation —that is, a reduction in gene flow. However, it is intrinsic to the concept of a species that hybrids are selected against, opposing the evolution of reproductive isolation, a problem that was recognised by Darwin.
The problem does not occur in allopatric speciation with geographically separated populations, which can diverge with different sets of mutations.
Poulton realized in that reproductive isolation could evolve through divergence, if each lineage acquired a different, incompatible allele of the same gene.
Selection against the heterozygote would then directly create reproductive isolation, leading to the Bateson—Dobzhansky—Muller model , further elaborated by H.
Allen Orr  and Sergey Gavrilets. Natural selection acts on an organism's phenotype, or physical characteristics. Phenotype is determined by an organism's genetic make-up genotype and the environment in which the organism lives.
When different organisms in a population possess different versions of a gene for a certain trait, each of these versions is known as an allele.
It is this genetic variation that underlies differences in phenotype. An example is the ABO blood type antigens in humans, where three alleles govern the phenotype.
Some traits are governed by only a single gene, but most traits are influenced by the interactions of many genes. A variation in one of the many genes that contributes to a trait may have only a small effect on the phenotype; together, these genes can produce a continuum of possible phenotypic values.
When some component of a trait is heritable, selection alters the frequencies of the different alleles, or variants of the gene that produces the variants of the trait.
Selection can be divided into three classes, on the basis of its effect on allele frequencies: directional , stabilizing , and disruptive selection.
This process can continue until the allele is fixed and the entire population shares the fitter phenotype.
This process can continue until the allele is eliminated from the population. Stabilizing selection conserves functional genetic features, such as protein-coding genes or regulatory sequences , over time by selective pressure against deleterious variants.
Disruptive selection may cause sympatric speciation through niche partitioning.